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Libra, la cryptomonnaie lancée par Facebook

Développée par les équipes de Facebook, la cryptomonnaie libra devrait voir le jour en 2020. Basée à Genève, l’association créée pour gérer cet écosystème de services financiers a publié un livre blanc fourmillant de détails sur ce projet déjà soutenu par près de trente entreprises et organisations, dont des systèmes de paiements et des services web populaires.

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La cryptomonnaie développée par Facebook jouit désormais d’une existence officielle. Après des mois de rumeurs, le réseau social a dévoilé Libra. Cet écosystème de paiement reposant sur une blockchain dédiée sera géré par l’association indépendante éponyme. Basée à Genève et à but non lucratif, cette structure va superviser la gestion et l’évolution de l’écosystème.

La libra, c’est quoi?

Conçue pour permettre d’envoyer de l’argent à n’importe qui et de n’importe quel endroit à moindre coût, la cryptomonnaie libra repose sur une blockchain pour l’heure privée. Cette dernière est développée dans une optique d’évolutivité, de sécurité, d’efficacité de stockage et de débit, souligne le livre blanc publié aujourd’hui 18 juin par l’association. La libra est une forme de «stable coin», ces crypto-monnaies censées conserver un cours plus stable que les principales crypto-monnaies dont le bitcoin. Pour garantir cette volatilité limitée, la libra repose entièrement sur une réserve d’actifs réels. «Divers dépôts bancaires et titres gouvernementaux à court terme seront conservés dans la réserve Libra pour chaque libra créée, afin de renforcer la confiance envers sa valeur intrinsèque», lit-on dans le livre blanc. Le code pour la blockchain est publié en open source sur Github et un premier réseau testnet est d’ores et déjà accessible aux développeurs.

Pour quand, pourquoi et pour qui?

Le lancement est prévu pour le premier semestre 2020. Le projet a pour objectif de devenir un écoystème libre et interopérable de services financiers. Consommateurs, développeurs ou entreprises pourront utiliser le réseau Libra, et y créer des produits et services financiers. L’association insiste sur le fait que le système qu’elle s’occupera de gérer donnera au plus grand nombre la possibilité d’accéder à des services financiers. «Les développeurs et les entreprises pourront créer des nouveaux produits financiers inclusifs destinés aux citoyens du monde entier», explique l’association, qui souligne que 1,7 milliard de personnes, soit 31% de la population adulte mondiale, sont encore privés de services bancaires. Le marché cible prioritaire de Libra est donc tout désigné.

Quel rôle joue Facebook?

Facebook a joué un rôle clé dans la création de la blockchain Libra mais s’applique désormais à se dissocier en partie du projet. Le réseau social a pour ce faire créé la filiale Calibra, dont les rênes sont confiées au Genevois David Marcus, ex-patron de Paypal passé chez Facebook en 2014. C’est lui qui a supervisé ces derniers mois les équipes blockchain au sein de la firme de Mark Zuckerberg. Avec la création de Calibra, Facebook explique se donner la possibilité de créer et opérer des services en utilisant le réseau Libra (Calibra va lancer un portefeuille numérique en 2020). Avec cette répartition des activités, la fime souhaite aussi garantir la séparation des données sociales et des données financières. Une démarche qui fait sens au regard des scandales liés à l’utilisation abusive des données personnelles des membres du réseau social… Facebook devrait continuer de jouer un rôle moteur en 2019 au sein de l’écosystème Libra mais le pouvoir décisionnel final incombera à l’ensemble des membres de l’association éponyme. «Facebook ne sera qu’un membre parmi d’autres et son rôle dans la gouvernance de l’association sera égal à celui de ses homologues», souligne le livre blanc.

Qui sont les premiers partenaires?

Les membres de l’association se composent actuellement de 27 entreprises, organisations institutions universitaires diverses et d’origines variées. Outre Facebook avec Calibra, mentionnons les acteurs du secteur des paiements Mastercard, PayPal, Stripe et Visa. Booking.com, eBay, Lyft Spotify et Uber sont aussi de la partie et l’on peut imaginer que ces services en ligne accepteront dès que possible la libra comme moyen de paiement. Les groupes télécoms Iliad (maison-mère de Free fondée par Xavier Niel) et Vodafone sont également membres, de même que diverses sociétés blockchain et de capital-risques. Aucune firme suisse n’est pour l’heure dans le coup.

Blockchain privée ou publique?

Pour participer à l’écosystème, chaque partenaire doit débourser au moins 10 millions de dollars, somme donnant accès à un nœud de validation des transactions s’opérant sur la blockchain Libra. Cette dernière est donc pour le moment privée, puisqu’un accès doit être accordé pour faire tourner un nœud de validation. Mais l’association précise que l’objectif est de rendre sa blockchain publique dans les cinq prochaines années, donc d’en faire un réseau sans permission et décentralisé à l’instar des blockchains qui sous-tendent la plupart des cryptomonnaies les plus popuilaires.

Source : ICT Journal / Yannick Chavanne / Mar 18.06.2019

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Tech

Elon Musk dévoile son interface cerveau-machine Neuralink

La startup Neuralink fondée en 2017 par Elon Musk affirme avoir mis au point son interface cerveau-machine pour piloter des ordinateurs par la pensée. Le projet, à la fois fascinant et effrayant, devrait être testé sur des paralytiques l’année prochaine. Explications.

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Imaginez qu’un robot opère votre boîte cranienne pour installer des puces électroniques et des électrodes dans votre cerveau, et qu’ensuite, en vous collant un boîtier minuscule derrière l’oreille, vous puissiez alors directement contrôler un ordinateur ou un smartphone… par la pensée. Ce scénario n’est pas celui d’un épisode de la série d’anticipation dystopique « Black Mirror » — bien qu’y ressemblant fortement — mais celui du projet Neuralink de l’entreprise éponyme d’Elon Musk. Bienvenue dans le monde futuriste du cerveau connecté, avec toutes les réserves, tant techniques, éthiques et médicales que celui-ci comporte…

Neuralink : une technologie existante améliorée

Les interfaces cerveau-machines existent depuis plusieurs années et ont déjà été testées en laboratoire. Leur principe est le suivant : récupérer et interpréter les informations électriques envoyées par les neurones dans des zones précises du cerveau par le biais de capteurs numériques. En résumé : des centaines —  ou des milliers dans le cas de Neuralink — de dispositifs de type « microélectrodes » (à base de polymères souples de quatre à six micromètres d’épaisseur) sont implantés dans le cerveau et lisent les signaux neuronaux, puis les convertissent et les relient à des circuits électroniques sous forme de 0 et de 1 afin d’être traités au final par des ordinateurs.

Ces systèmes, appelés BCI — pour Brain-computer interface — sont en phase de développement et de tests par l’université de l’Utah, le MIT, l’agence de recherche du ministère de la Défense (Darpa) pour des domaines médicaux ou militaires. Une initiative publique du gouvernement américain a même été mise en place depuis 2014 pour ce domaine : BRAIN. Mais ces dispositifs n’ont pour l’heure jamais été poussés au point d’avoir des applications concrètes établies (bien qu’ils aient déjà permis d’envoyer des textes, bouger des curseurs ou piloter des bras robotiques par le cerveau). Et c’est là où Elon Musk et sa startup Neuralink viennent rebattre les cartes.

Intelligence humaine et artificielle mêlées

Le projet Neuralink vient d’être dévoilé sur le papier et fait frémir plus d’un spécialiste puisqu’il prétend avoir terminé le développement d’une sorte de « kit neuronal éléctronique », permettant d’interfacer le cerveau avec des dispositifs numériques. L’opération est réalisée à l’aide d’un robot qui implante 3000 microélectrodes directement sur les neurones,  ainsi que quatre micropuces baptisées « N1 », de 4 milimètres par 5. Un petit boîtier placé derrière l’oreille et équipé de technologie de communication sans fil bluetooth, le « pod », récupère ensuite les informations numériques des capteurs pour les envoyer vers des appareils de type ordinateur, smartphone ou tablette. Il est alors possible de commander un dispositif numérique par la pensée.

Le but déclaré de ce BCI est de permettre dans un premier temps d’aider les handicapés et les malades neurologiques. Mais, depuis le départ du projet, Elon Musk a bien spécifié que son objectif central était avant tout « d’augmenter l’intelligence humaine » en la mêlant à l’intelligence artificielle (IA). Musk est convaincu que l’IA va supplanter l’être humain en capacités. Pour lui, la seule solution afin d’éviter à l’humanité de se « faire dominer » par l’IA, est de la « coupler » au cerveau humain. Des cerveaux qui piloteront des algorithmes en apprentissage automatique ?

Premiers cobayes humains : 2020

Un singe a servi de cobaye au système Neuralink, selon Musk et son équipe, et a réussi à « contrôler un ordinateur par la pensée ». Cette première étape semble donner des ailes au PDG de la startup, qui annonce les premiers implants sur des êtres humains en 2020. Les différentes étapes du projet Neuralink donnent un peu le vertige. Si, au départ, la startup envisage le traitement des maladies neurologiques (Parkinson, dépression, épilepsie) grâce à son système ainsi que le contrôle de membres robotisés par la pensée pour les handicapés, elle compte aussi — et surtout— offrir une « amélioration des performances et des capacités cognitives humaines ». Les possibilités de Neuralink sont quasi infinies — selon ses concepteurs —, au point, par exemple, d’imaginer « un téléchargement d’informations au sujet d’une ville entière » dans le cerveau d’un bénéficiaire des implants. Si l’humain au « cerveau augmenté » est l’objectif d’Elon Musk, les craintes sur la technologie de Neuralink sont à la mesure de ses possibilités : immenses.

TV5 Monde – 04 aoû 2019 – Pascal Hérard

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Satya Nadella, CEO Microsoft : « Nous allons investir 1 milliard de dollars dans OpenAI ! »

L’éditeur américain investit massivement dans l’association co-fondée par Elon Musk. En échange Azure devient le cloud de prédilection d’OpenAI. Le partenariat vise à créer une infrastructure « supercomputing » dans Azure pour héberger les projets d’IA Générale (AGI).

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Satya Nadella - CEO de Microsoft

Le Cloud n’est pas l’unique priorité de Microsoft. L’éditeur investit tout aussi massivement dans l’intelligence artificielle, multipliant les services IA, équipant son cloud d’accélérateurs NPU, s’offrant de nombreuses startups, et lançant de nombreuses initiatives « AI for Good » telles que « AI for Humanitarian Action », « Microsoft AI for Earth » ou encore « Microsoft AI for Accessibility ».

Et Microsoft n’a pas l’intention de ralentir ses investissements en la matière alors que s’ouvre sa nouvelle année fiscale. La firme dirigée par Satya Nadella vient d’annoncer une participation d’un milliard de dollars dans OpenAI, l’association créée en 2015 par Elon Musk et Sam Altman ayant vocation à promouvoir une intelligence artificielle sûre et ouvertement bénéfique à l’humanité. OpenAI avait beaucoup fait parler d’elle l’été dernier en démontrant une IA collaborative utilisant plusieurs réseaux de neurones pour piloter une équipe de joueurs sur le jeu DOTA 2. Ces derniers mois OpenAI a démontré une intelligence « sans supervision humaine » capable de répondre à des questions, d’écrire des textes et même des poèmes. En fin d’année dernière, Elon Musk a quitté le conseil d’administration d’OpenAI au moment où l’association s’apprêtait à créer une branche – dénommée « OpenAI LP » – destinée à commercialiser des services et réaliser des profits.

Un rapprochement dans le cloud…

Le nouveau partenariat signé avec Microsoft concerne l’intégralité d’Open AI même si l’investissement massif d’un milliard de dollars est plus spécifiquement destiné à financer OpenAI LP.
La société dédiée à l’IA va déplacer tous ces services dans le cloud Azure. Et le cloud de Microsoft sera également le nuage de prédilection pour tous les services qui seront commercialisés par OpenAI LP.
Mais les deux entreprises vont surtout collaborer pour créer de nouvelles technologies autour de l’IA et étendre les efforts en AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) d’OpenAI, notamment en élaborant une nouvelle infrastructure « supercomputing » dédiée à l’IA et hébergée dans Azure. L’idée d’une intelligence artificielle générale (AGI) est à l’origine de la fondation d’OpenAI. L’objectif est d’élaborer une IA capable d’acquérir par elle-même de nouvelles aptitudes et de réaliser des tâches comme le fait l’intelligence humaine.

… pour développer une IA Générale sûre et bénéfique

C’est le risque de voir de telles intelligences éclipser les humains qui a à l’origine conduit Elon Musk et ses partenaires à créer OpenAI. Depuis l’annonce de la création d’OpenAI LP, de nombreuses voix s’inquiètent, considérant que cette branche « née pour le profit » ne peut que faire perdre de vue l’objectif initial. Et l’investissement de Microsoft ne fait qu’attiser leurs craintes. Pourtant, les deux entreprises ont tenu à affirmer que cette volonté originelle de créer une AGI bénéfique à l’humanité restait au cœur de ce partenariat. Sam Altman, CEO d’OpenAI, a ainsi rappelé qu’ « il est crucial que l’AGI soit déployée en toute sécurité et que ses avantages économiques soient largement distribués. Il était impératif de trouver un partenaire qui partage cette vision ». De son côté Satya Nadella, le CEO de Microsoft, a affirmé que l’objectif premier de ce partenariat était de « démocratiser l’intelligence artificielle tout en veillant à placer la sûreté et la sécurité au premier plan afin qu’elle puisse être bénéfique à tous ».
Microsoft et OpenAI ont par ailleurs confirmé que les développements à venir seraient gouvernés par les politiques d’éthique de l’IA des deux entreprises. Rappelons que Microsoft a créé, il y a plus d’un an, un « Conseil d’Éthique » multidisciplinaire destiné à gouverner tous les projets « IA » de l’éditeur.

Source : Laurent Delattre / itforbusiness.fr

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The Big Bang Theory : la série culte est de retour sur Netflix !

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Pas de doute, le mois de juillet ne pouvait pas mieux commencer ! En effet, après avoir introduit l’intégrale de Glee, voilà que Netflix sort une énorme carte de son jeu en ajoutant les 10 premières saisons de la série The Big Band Theory !!! (Rappelons que la série avait déjà été mise en ligne puis supprimée au grand dam des fans !)

Inutile de dire que si vous êtes déjà acquis à la cause, vous allez certainement passer l’été avec Leonard, Shelton et toute sa bande de geeks ! Enfin, pour celles et ceux qui n’auraient pas encore goûté aux joie de la physique quantique et des conventions Star Wars, dites-vous bien que n’êtes plus qu’à un clic de franchir le côté obscure de la science.

Nous avons fait le calcul, ce ne sont pas moins de 296 épisodes de 20 minutes environ qui vous attendent ! Alors trêves de bavardages et changement de cap pour les vacances, oubliez les plages du sud : vous avez rendez-vous à Pasadena en Californie !

netflix-news.com – 1 Juil 2019

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